Max Berger

From the Silk Road to 108th Street

The Immigration and Integration of Bukharian Jews into 20th Century Queens, New York City

A photo essay by Max Berger

I.     Introduction

In the dynamic melting pot of New York City, the arrival of the Bukharian Jews during the 20th century marked a distinctive chapter in the narrative of American immigration and cultural transformation. This community, originating from ancient Silk Road communities in Uzbekistan, brought with them a rich cultural heritage, distinct religious practices, and a resilient spirit that shaped not only their own identities, but also the neighborhoods they inhabited. The narrative of Bukharian Jewish immigration to Queens intertwines with the broader story of the exodus of Soviet Jewry, beginning in the early 1970s amidst a backdrop of increasing antisemitism and socio-political upheaval in the Soviet Union. This influx of immigrants revitalized fading Jewish enclaves in New York, particularly in areas like Forest Hills and Rego Park, which developed into vibrant communities echoing the cultural vibrancy of Central Asia. 

As these immigrants established themselves, they grappled with the dual challenge of preserving their unique cultural identity while assimilating into the American mainstream. This dichotomy is reflected in the evolution of their religious institutions, language preservation, and the establishment of community centers and businesses that served both as sanctuaries of their heritage and bridges to their new homeland. Moreover, the interaction between Bukharian Jews and their host community in Queens sheds light on the dynamics of multicultural urban environments, revealing patterns of mutual influence, adaptation, and sometimes tension. The immigrants’ contributions to the local economy through various enterprises and their participation in civic life have enriched New York City's multicultural mosaic and posed questions about identity, heritage, and community in the context of global migration. This paper aims to unravel these threads, exploring how the Bukharian Jewish community in Queens navigated the complex interplay of assimilation and cultural preservation, and in doing so, transformed both their identity and the fabric of their new American milieu. Through this lens, we delve into the broader themes of immigration and identity, examining how individuals and collective experiences shape, and are shaped by, the environments in which they unfold.

Bukhara mausoleum ensemble led by Ari Babakhanov. Photo by Alexander Jumaev.

II.     Introduction to the Emigration

Bukharian Jews originate from the areas in Central Asia that are today demarcated by the independent states of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. First arriving in Central Asia following the Babylonian conquest of the land of Israel in 586 BCE, they traveled eastward on trade routes and settled in cities like Bukhara, Samarkand, and Tashkent, major hubs of Silk Road trade. By the time they were under Soviet rule, their population reached approximately forty thousand. The Soviet Union rarely issued exit visas prior to 1971, and emigration was initially met with substantial opposition from the KGB. The majority of Bukharian Jews who emigrated prior to then did so to Israel, where their population consisted of about ten thousand, mainly residing in a Bukharian quarter established in the 16th century.

The first Bukharian Jews to arrive in New York arrived in the late 1930s, mainly from London. From the 1940s to the 1960s, the Bukharian community grew by approximately sixty, many of whom emigrated from Israel. The 1970s witnessed a remarkable surge in Soviet Jewish immigration to the United States, catalyzed by a confluence of geopolitical, social, and humanitarian factors. The Soviet government's issuance of exit visas, often stamped ‘Israel’, was a strategic response to growing Jewish demands for emigration and international scrutiny. Many Jews transferred to transit countries such as Austria or Italy before reaching their final destinations. The first half of the 1970s would see 100,000 Soviet Jews emigrate to Israel, most of whom came from the Central Asian republics, and were among the most religious, and least ‘assimilated’ of the Soviet Jews. Predominant beliefs within Bukharian society were that life in Israel would be easier than life in the United States and that the familial and communal ties already established in the Jewish state would ease assimilation. They were drawn to Israel both for religious reasons — Bukharians are predominantly orthodox — and, overwhelmingly, for family reunification. Some, upon arrival in their transit country, would indicate they would prefer to go elsewhere rather than Israel and were referred to HIAS. Again, their reasons for choosing to live in a country other than Israel were primarily also family reunion, as well as a lack of deep Jewish identity, fear of war, or a practical desire for the economic prosperity that America seemed to promise.

Soviet Jews arriving in America. Page from the 1977 HIAS Annual Report. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.

When emigration from the largest cities in Russia and Ukraine began in earnest in the latter half of the 1970s, the desired destination shifted decidedly to the United States, part in response to a policy change by the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) that would allow Soviet émigrés to choose the country in which they wished to settle. Between 1975 and the decade's end, over 110,000 Soviet Jews resettled in America. These Western émigrés, though, contrasted starkly with the earlier waves of Central Asian refugees — they were predominantly well-educated urban professionals, disenchanted with the Soviet regime and disillusioned by the prospect of life in Israel amid ongoing Middle Eastern tumult. They had few strong attachments to the Jewish religion or Israel, and sought refuge in America, both escaping economic limitations on their education and professional development and increasing Soviet antisemitism. The closure of Soviet borders in 1982 halted further Jewish emigration, which did not resume until Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost in the mid-1980s that, despite leading to an improvement in the conditions of Soviet Jewish life, fueled a rise in grassroots antisemitism that caused a quarter million Jews to emigrate to the United States over the next ten years. This number only counts legal immigrants- activists estimate that illegal immigration adds between 10 and 30 percent to the official count. Soviet Jewish émigrés began to arrive in New York City at rates that surpassed 100 each day. Bukharian Jews that chose to emigrate to America found themselves among this exodus of Soviet Jewry, and tasked with assimilation within an increasingly Soviet New York City — one that, by the turn of the 21st century, had a population of at least 300,000 Soviet Jewish émigrés.

Pages from the 1970 HIAS Annual Report with statistics on Soviet Jewish émigrés. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.
Refusenik Ida Nudel greeted by Natan Sharansky, Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres at Ben-Gurion Airport in Israel on October 15, 1987. Photo by Nati Harnik.

III.     Support Networks and Integration - the Role of Aid Organizations in Bukharian Resettlement

A number of organizations were established in the United States to aid refugees and facilitate emigration. Organizations like the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), the American Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), and the United Service of New Americans (USNA) were part of what historian Stephan Porter calls the ‘benevolent empire,’ the expanding network of non-governmental organizations that were instrumental in advancing a new American initiative of humanitarian interventionism.

NYANA, the New York Association for New Americans, is another of these organizations. Founded in 1949, NYANA provided resettlement assistance for over 250,000 Jewish refugees from the former Soviet Union, and was instrumental in the decision-making that led to the placement of Bukharian Jews in the neighborhoods of Forest Hills and Rego Park in Queens. In 1969, NYANA began offering services to every new Soviet Jewish arrival, meeting them at John F. Kennedy Airport and providing a bilingual packet of information about New York City that covered housing, transportation, public schools, and medical facilities. They also offered immediate financial assistance to sustain the new arrival until their appointment at NYANA headquarters and arranged temporary lodging for those in need. They then collaborated with Jewish agencies such as the Yong Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Associations (YM-YWHA) and Jewish Community Centers to secure permanent housing for these émigrés in historically Jewish neighborhoods, where social service systems were already in place to care for Jewish elderly. They chose apartments for their location in aging, inner-city Jewish communities with good housing stock and high vacancy rates- including Washington Heights in Manhattan, Rego Park and Forest Hills in Queens, and Williamsburg, Borough Park, and Brighton Beach in Brooklyn. NYANA also assigned vocational counselors to each working-age adult, tested them for English proficiency, and enrolled them in English as a Second Language courses. They offered vocational training in business and accounting, the trades, and retraining programs for engineers, computer scientists, and healthcare professionals. Vital to the effort to aid these Bukharian émigrés were volunteers, who served as liaisons to the community. They provided the new arrivals with services that organizations could not: invitations to dinner (especially Shabbat, and Passover Seder), shopping trips, English ‘Ulpan’ classes, help with job and university applications, help finding used clothes and furniture, introductions to community members that could assist with different services, and more. Bukharian émigré families report that these volunteers provided them a critical lifeline, and if they are so able to, help support the volunteer in return (with monetary assistance, job placement, or otherwise) when their situation improves. This cycle of mutual, back-and-forth support is characteristic not only of Bukharian communities but of Jewish communities more broadly.

Soviet Jewish children arriving at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City, wearing HIAS buttons, 1979. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.

The experiences of émigrés with these organizations varied. While some successfully found work and housing, others struggled with the bureaucratic complexities of migration and cultural acclimation. Additionally, the sheer number of Soviet Jews that required assistance meant that organizations like NYANA and HIAS simply did not have the resources to reach the entire population. As such, those who could were forced to rely solely on family and communal networks. But most issues were mainly issues of adjustment and acculturation. Culturally, Soviet Jewish émigrés were reluctant to take employment at what they viewed as ‘less than’ what they had in the Soviet Union. The professional backgrounds of many émigrés, including physicians and engineers, required retraining and licensing, which posed significant challenges due to rigorous examination requirements in English and professional standards. The limited resources of aid organizations to aid in these efforts compounded these challenges. Moreover, adjustment to the American system of government was slow for many émigrés and inherently ‘American’ concepts seemed foreign, such as the American stress on independence and individualism, the role of religious institutions, free and competitive job markets, and healthcare costs. Some refugees faced mistrust or condescension from social workers, affecting their perceptions of American life. Mismanagement of documentation and other bureaucratic errors occasionally led to legal issues and emotional distress. Despite these challenges, the efforts of NYANA and similar organizations had profound, long-term effects on the émigré communities, facilitating their integration into American society and shaping the ethnic enclaves of New York City that influenced their cultural identities for generations to come.

How to Find a Job in New York City – a Manual for Newly Arrived Soviet Emigres, provided by the Federation Employment & Guidance Service. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.
Families outside of the HIAS office in New York City. Ca. 1940s. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.

NYANA staff assisting Soviet refugees in the supermarket. Courtesy of YIVO archives.

NYANA providing Soviet émigrés with medical job training. Ca 1980s. Courtesy of YIVO Archives.

IV.     Community Life

As the Bukharian Jews navigated their new American environment, they fostered a resilient community life that sought to balance preserving their unique cultural identity with the demands of assimilation into a bustling, multicultural city. The evolution of the Bukharian Jewish community in New York City reflects robust communal structures and illustrates the vital role these played in their cultural preservation and adaptation strategies. One of the first major communal endeavors was the organization of a small-scale ‘synagogue’ in the basement of a Sephardic synagogue in 1940. With no president or rabbi, and services led by a hazzan, the makeshift synagogue was established by Naaman Aliboev, Zalman Babaev, David Mamon, and Ariel Isroelov, émigrés from Ottoman Palestine. It laid the foundation for the first Bukharian synagogue in New York -- the Bukharian Jewish Community Center -- established in 1963 for Jews who managed to escape Central Asia after World War II. Located on 70th Avenue between Austin Street and Queens Boulevard, the главная синагога (main synagogue) -- as it was referred to by residents for decades --  served as a crucial focal point for the community, providing both a place of worship and a center for social and cultural gatherings.  In 1978, the one-thousand-strong Bukharian community combined financial means (pooled funds, large contributions from wealthy community members, a bank loan) and bought a house on 112th Street, renovated it, and converted it to a synagogue. It was then able to serve as a religious refuge for up to two hundred émigrés from Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan. In 1983, the community purchased a large space on 70th Avenue and split it with Ashkenazi Jews to create a dual synagogue. Also important to community establishment was the purchase of land for burial, which allowed the community to lead ritual burials according to their customs. 285 plots of land were purchased in 1990.

Initially, Bukharian settlers in New York were unstructured and dispersed across boroughs without strong connections or community publications. The establishment of the Bukharian Jewish Community Center in Queens increased the visibility and cohesion of the Bukharian community and enabled more centralized and organized support structures for recent émigrés. In the late 1990s, the building was demolished and construction initiated on a larger center. Despite challenges, including a halted construction in the late 1990s due to a legal dispute, the community persevered, and by the early 2000s, had resumed and completed construction on a larger center. The surge in emigration post-Soviet Union collapse saw the creation of over 15 Bukharian synagogues and educational academies in New York, significantly boosting Jewish literacy and community infrastructure—a stark contrast to the over 116 synagogues built by the Bukharian community in Israel. With this in mind, Bukharian Jewish émigrés made exceptional efforts to preserve their culture and identity through the swift creation of these community centers, schools, and clubs for academic research and publishing.

Bukharian Jewish Community Center on 70th Avenue between Queens Boulevard and Austin Street, courtesy of Lauren F. Friedman, Flickr, 2010.
The Rabbinical Alliance of America held a conference with the leadership of Beth Gavriel Jewish Center in Forest Hills, New York, 2019. Courtesy of the Rabbinical Alliance of America.

Traditional celebrations, particularly weddings, remain central to maintaining cultural continuity and identity within the Bukharian Jewish community. As the community has navigated its place within the multicultural milieu of Queens, these festivities have become emblematic of their rich heritage and their adaptation strategies. They are held in a grand style, reminiscent of Central Asia, often in restaurants in Forest Hills and Rego Park. King David, a restaurant and event venue on Queens Boulevard founded by Abo Shakarov, has remained a central institution of Bukharian life in Queens. Since 1998, it has hosted thousands of weddings, bar/bat mitzvah ceremonies, Passover seders, and more, and attracts droves of Bukharian émigrés due to its historic allure and extravagant amenities, which symbolize the community’s aspirational dreams and achievements in America. Despite their cultural differences, Bukharians and their Russian and Ukrainian counterparts celebrate similarly. Both groups appreciate a grandiose style and level of glamor, and you may hear crossover in the music selection. For both émigré groups, weddings are not only social events but also cultural exhibitions, blending traditions from their homeland with influences from their new environment. The events feature a vedushchii (master of ceremonies), who ensures the ceremony is both entertaining and culturally resonant. Culinary offerings at Bukharian weddings span a spectrum from traditional plov (rice pilaf) and shashlik (shish kebab) to more localized dishes like lox and roast chicken, catering to a diverse palate including both old and new world flavors. The musical accompaniment often includes a mix of traditional Bukharian songs in the Shashmaqom style and international melodies, providing a sonic representation of their cultural hybridity.

Da Mikele Illagio, famed Bukharian wedding venue, on the corner of Albion Avenue and Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst, Queens. Courtesy of the owner.
Interior of King David restaurant, a popular Kosher restaurant for Bukharians commonly used for special events. Courtesy of the owner.
Restaurants and шашлычницы (kebab restaurants) have become vital places of community gathering, reminiscent of courtyards in Uzbekistan where extended families gathered. Walking down Queens Boulevard or 108th Street will yield dozens of Uzbek, Tajik, and ‘Glatt Kosher’ restaurants owned by Bukharian, Russian, and Uzbek émigrés. These venues serve not only as dining spots but as crucial social spaces that reinforce community bonds. Here, patrons choose to support their fellow émigrés, reflecting a strong preference for ‘eating in the community.’ This dining practice is less about exclusivity and more about fostering solidarity, offering support to Bukharian community members, and contributing to the economic sustainability of their community.

Waitresses at Taste of Samarkand, a popular Uzbek restaurant on Woodhaven Boulevard in Rego Park, Queens. Courtesy of New York Times.

Traditional Uzbek food at Taste of Samarkand in Rego Park, Queens. Dishes include samsa (flaky meat pastries), nakhot garmack (braised veal tail with chickpeas), osh-potche (soup with beef feet, chickpeas, and potato), and lepyoshka (flat round bread made in a tandoor oven)

V.     Assimilation and Integration

The resettlement of Central Asian Jews into ethnic enclaves in Rego Park and Forest Hills shaped the characteristics of these communities. Rego Park was so named by the ‘Real Good Construction Company,’ which developed the area in the 1920s and advertised it as a ‘real good place to live.’ Rego Park is separated from Forest Hills by 102nd St., 67th Ave, and Selfridge Street to the east, is separated from Corona and Elmhurst to the north by the Long Island Expressway, and is separated from Middle Village to the south by Woodhaven Boulevard. Forest Hills is more expansive and green but is cut through by Queens Boulevard, which discourages many pedestrians. It is bordered to the north by Grand Central Parkway and the south by Jackie Robinson Parkway. Separating Forest Hills and Rego Park are no major thoroughfares that inhibit pedestrian traffic, which promotes cohesion between residents of both neighborhoods. This section of Queens is the largest area of Soviet Jewish settlement in New York after Brighton and one of the most diverse Jewish communities in the country.

Intersection of 63rd Street and Booth Drive in Rego Park, Queens, in May 2000. Courtesy of Jeff Saltzman.

Intersection of 63rd Street and Booth Drive in Rego Park, Queens, in May 2000. Max’s mother, upon emigration to New York from Uzbekistan, worked as a cashier at Family Fruit Farm (pictured). Courtesy of Jeff Saltzman.

Looking North on the intersection of 63rd Drive and Saunders Street in Rego Park, Queens, in May 2001. Max’s mother, upon emigration from Uzbekistan, also worked at the Kiki’s 99 cent store pictured on the far right. Courtesy of Jeff Saltzman.

Looking North on the intersection of 63rd Drive and Alderton Street in Rego Park, Queens, in 2001. Max’s grandmother owned a travel agency that operated out of the same building as the Kumon pictured on the right. Max’s sister attended classes at the Kumon in the mid-2000s. Courtesy of Jeff Saltzman.

Bukharian Jews are linguistically and religiously distinct from their Western Soviet counterparts in a variety of ways. Bukharian Jews share in the culture of Tajiks, Iranians, and other Central Asian and Middle Eastern groups. The Bukharian language, a Judeo-Tajik variety of Persian, incorporates elements from Hebrew, Russian, and Uzbek and has historically utilized Hebrew, Arabic, Cyrillic, and Roman scripts, though it is predominantly written in Cyrillic today. In the Queens Bukharian community, Russian serves as the lingua franca, yet many still speak Bukharian, preserving this unique linguistic heritage. English literacy rates are high among the youth, contrasting with older émigrés who often manage without full English fluency within this ethnic enclave. Read more about the Bukharian language.

Religiously, Bukharians maintain a strong adherence to Sephardic ritual traditions, marking a clear distinction from the less observant Western Soviet Jews. This religious and cultural distinctiveness sometimes leads to friction with other émigré groups; for example, Polish Jews in the area have voiced concerns about the Bukharians' public celebrations, which they perceive as noisy and disruptive. Similarly, some Russian and Ukrainian émigrés distance themselves from Bukharians as they are ‘not real Russians.’ This social rejection not only impacts their self-esteem but also inhibits their attempts to forge broader social connections, further entrenching the community's sense of isolation. These dynamics reveal the complexities and challenges of navigating intergroup relations in a diverse immigrant landscape, highlighting the need for greater understanding and integration efforts. They also reinforce the tendency of Bukharian Jews to form a close-knit, insular community. This is reflected in their educational and economic practices, where a significant emphasis is placed on supporting family enterprises over formal education. This focus is rooted deeply in their heritage as merchants and artisans, an identity that has enabled them to navigate economic landscapes effectively, both in Central Asia and in New York City. This focus on entrepreneurship played a key role in Bukharian acculturation to New York life. When they could no longer operate businesses under the Soviet Union, Jews in Uzbekistan gravitated to occupations in the retail, service, academic, and professional industries. Many Bukharian families build on their experiences in these trades to open businesses in Queens. A walk down 108th Street — known as Bukharian Broadway — will reveal a plethora of Bukharian barber shops and hairdressers, restaurants, and physicians' practices. Children are expected to play a part in these businesses starting in their youth. Some successful businesses that operate in Manhattan — furniture stores on Lower Broadway, jewelry stores on 47th Street — are run by Bukharian émigrés. The rapid economic adjustment of Bukharian Jews, markedly swifter than that of many Western Soviet emigres, highlights their adeptness at navigating both the opportunities and challenges of their new environment.

People walking along 108th Street, commonly known as Bukharian Broadway, in Forest Hills, Queens, 2020. Courtesy of SIPA USA.

Bukharian émigrés in New York encounter distinct challenges in adapting to the American social fabric, which starkly contrasts with their traditional customs rooted in Central Asian Islamic culture. NYANA's Anna Halberstadt directs a support program for battered Soviet women that adapts to these cultural nuances, addressing unique domestic violence triggers within the community. For Bukharians, these often stem from deviations from traditional gender roles rather than the economic or substance abuse issues more common in Ukrainian or Russian households. This has led to family conflicts that sometimes require intervention from social services. Despite significant legal advances in the U.S. protecting women's rights, many Bukharian women face challenges in embracing these changes due to deep-rooted cultural norms. Although making up a small fraction of the Soviet immigrant community, Bukharian women are disproportionately represented in support groups for domestic abuse, indicating both the severity of the issue and the community's gradual shift toward empowerment. While some women remain in challenging environments due to fear of ostracism, younger generations are increasingly asserting their rights, often in stark defiance of traditional expectations. Males, on the contrary, are not empowered to make significant changes in their behaviors to assimilate to American customs. This dynamic underscores the ongoing tension between cultural preservation and assimilation, as the community navigates the complex landscape of identity and belonging in America.

VI.     Conclusion

The Bukharian Jewish community in Queens exemplifies the multifaceted journey of émigré adaptation and cultural preservation within a diverse urban landscape. Over the course of the 20th century, these émigrés from Central Asia have not only maintained their rich cultural traditions but have also woven them into the fabric of New York City, enriching its diversity. The community’s efforts to establish synagogues, schools, and cultural centers reflect a profound commitment to preserving their heritage while embracing their new American identity. Simultaneously, their economic contributions through local businesses underscore their role as integral players in the economic development of their neighborhoods. Despite facing challenges related to integration and intercultural relations, the Bukharian Jews of Queens have demonstrated resilience and adaptability, navigating the complexities of identity and belonging in a constantly evolving societal context. Their story is a vivid illustration of how immigrant communities can maintain their unique cultural identities while contributing dynamically to their new homelands, fostering a richer, more inclusive society. Through their journey, the Bukharian Jews illuminate the broader themes of migration, identity, and the ongoing dialogue between tradition and adaptation—a narrative that continues to shape the American Jewish experience.

Photo Gallery

Use the arrows to navigate. Click on image to magnify. 
Émigrés at HIAS kiosk 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Jewish émigré family on the cover of Photography Magazine 1955, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Child with HIAS button, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Émigrés supported by HIAS, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Émigré children and temporary HIAS housing, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Newspaper clippings about HIAS refugees, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
HIAS refugees, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Young émigrés supported by HIAS, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Family reunited by HIAS, on the cover of Daily Mirror, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Émigrés, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Émigrés supported by HIAS in Australia, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album
Refugees wearing HIAS pins, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
HIAS welcoming first displaced persons, 1944-1958, courtesy of HIAS Photograph Album.
Intersection of 63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 2001. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Intersection of 63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 2001. Max’s godmother worked at Met Foodmarkets. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Intersection of 63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 2001. Members of Max’s family attended school in this building. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Facing north on 63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 2001. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 1992. Max’s mother worked at the Family Fruit Farm as a cashier at this time. It remained open 24 hours, not unlike many other stores in the area. This store is a neighborhood institution. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
63rd Drive & Wetherole Street in Rego Park, Queens, 2001. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Jackie Robinson Parkway at Queens Boulevard in Kew Gardens, Queens, late 1990s. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Jackie Robinson Parkway south of Queens Boulevard, early 2000s. Courtesy Jeff Saltzman.
Bukharian Jewish refugee family, 1991. Courtesy Atlanta Jewish Times.
New York Times magazine section on Bukharian Jewry in Forest Hills, Queens, 2001. Courtesy New York Times.
Queens Boulevard facing 75th Road 1939 vs. 2000s. Courtesy of the Percy Loomis Sperr Collection.
Intersection of 63rd Drive & Booth St in Rego Park, Queens, 1960s. Courtesy The Ghost of Queens Past, Facebook.
Queens Blvd & 77th Ave in Forest Hills, Queens, 1940s vs 2000s. Courtesy NYPL Collection.
Queens Blvd seen from Union Turnpike, 1930s. Courtesy The Ghost of Queens Past, Facebook.
Queens Blvd & 76th Ave in Forest Hills, Queens, 1930s vs 2000s. Courtesy The Ghost of Queens Past, Facebook.

Other work by Max

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VII.     Works Cited

Ardoin, Morris. “Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society.” In Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1:Pg 620, 2007.

Berger, Julia, Ilya Berger, and Margarita Shakhmurov. “A conversation with a Bukharian Jewish émigré family on their experiences.” Interview by Max Berger, March 10, 2024.

Cooper, Alanna. “Bukharan Jews,” 2017.

Fisher, Leon. “Initial Experiences in the Resettlement of Soviet Jews to the United States.” Journal of Jewish Communal Service, May 1975, 267–69.

Garland, Libby. “Other Maps: Reflections on European Jewish Refugees’ Migration to the United States in the Early Postwar Era.” In Wandering Jews, 151–78. Purdue University Press, 2020.

Gergely, Julia. “The Unofficial Mayor of Queens’ Bukharian Jewish Community Gets a Long-Awaited Honor.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 16, 2023.

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS). “Annual Reports, 1994–1999,” n.d. Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) Records.

“HIAS - Our History.” HIAS - Who We Are (blog). Accessed April 11, 2024.

Helmreich, William. The Queens Nobody Knows: An Urban Walking Guide. Princeton University Press, 2020.

Jacobson, Gaynor. “Spotlight on Soviet Jewry; Absorption in the USA — Challenge and Prospect.” Journal of Jewish Communal Service, May 1975, 190–94.

King David Restaurant. “King David Restaurant - Facebook.” Facebook. Accessed April 15, 2024.

New York Association for New Americans (NYANA). “Starting Over: The NYANA Resettlement Process.,” 1996.

Ochildiev, David. “ОЧЕРКИ НОВОЙ И НОВЕЙШЕЙ ИСТОРИИ БУХАРСКИХ ЕВРЕЕВ - Essays on the New and Contemporary History of the Bukharian Jews.” In История бухарских евреев, 1:29–103. New York: World Congress of the Bukharian Jews Club “Roshnoyi-Light,” 2005.

Ordonez, Franco. “NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: FOREST HILLS; Preserving an Ancient Jewish Culture in Modern Amber.” New York Times, March 11, 2001.

Orleck, Annelise. The Soviet Jewish Americans. The New Americans. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Pinkhasov, Robert. “ОБЩИННЫЕ ЦЕНТРЫ И МЕЖОБЩИННЫЕ СВЯЗИ / ОБЩИНЫ И ОБЩИННЫЕ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ - COMMUNITY CENTERS AND INTERCOMMUNITY RELATIONS / COMMUNITIES AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS.” In История бухарских евреев, 1:192–283. New York: World Congress of the Bukharian Jews Club “Roshnoyi-Light,” 2005.

Pinkhasov, Robert, and Svetlana Danilova. The Bukharian and Mountain Jews in the Whirlpool of History. New York: Council of Jewish Emigre Community Organizations, 2018.

Porter, Stephen. Benevolent Empire: U.S. Power, Humanitarianism, and the World’s Dispossessed. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017.

Vernant, Jacques. The Refugee in the Post-War World. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1953.

Yivo Institute for Jewish Research. “NYANA - Historical Overview.” In Milstein Family Jewish Communal Archive Project, n.d.

Zand, Michael. “BUKHARA Vii. Bukharan Jews.” In Encyclopaedia Iranica, 4:530–45, 2000.

“Демографические Показатели По 15 Новым Независимым: государствамВсесоюзная Перепись Населения 1959 Года. Национальный Состав Населения По Республикам СССР - Uzbek CCP.” РГАЭ РФ (быв. ЦГАНХ СССР), фонд 1562, опись 336, ед.хр. 1566а -1566д (Таблица 3,4 Распределение населения по национальности и родному языку), 1970.

Shoppers make their way along 108th Street in the Forest Hills neighborhood, designated a “red zone”, Queens, NY, October 7, 2020. Courtesy of SIPA USA.

Ida Nudel greeted at Ben-Gurion Airport. Courtesy Nati Harnik.

YIVO Archives of images of Soviet Jews Post-World War II. Courtesy of the owner.

Bukharian Jewish Community Center. Courtesy Lauren F. Friedman.

Da Mikele Illagio in Queens, New York. Courtesy of the owner.

Taste of Samarkand is a Silk Road Oasis in Queens. Courtesy of New York Times.

King David Wedding Venue. Courtesy of the owner.

Highlighted Collection: Records of HIAS. Courtesy of YIVO.

Rabbinical Alliance of America Joins with Bukharian Leaders to Celebrate Torah Revolution. Courtesy of the owner.

Images of Queens neighborhoods 1992-2001. Courtesy of Jeff Saltzman.
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS) Photograph Album. Courtesy of HIAS and the Center for Jewish History.

Bukharian Refugee Recounts Hardships in U.S. Courtesy of Atlanta Jewish Times.

© Max Berger and all respective parties. Images used for educational purposes.